Nucleic Acid Detection

Nucleic Acid Detection Recombinant DNA technology has enabled the isolation and characterization of individual genes. The elucidation of the roles of genes depends upon the expression and detection of individual genes and their encoded proteins. Originally nucleic acids were labeled with radioactive tags and exposed to film, subsequently different DNA stains such as ethidium bromide and florescent tags were developed. Today, nucleic acid samples can be detected by radiolabelling, staining, tagging, probing and hybridization. Microarrays are chips with bound DNA that can be map sites of gene/protein interaction. Northern blots are membrane with hybridized RNA that can be used to measure relative amounts of mRNA present in different samples. Real time PCR allows for the detection and quantification of amplified products. The latest advances in nanotechnology provide highly sensitive rapid detection of proteins, toxins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules in a wide range of samples. Nucleic acid detection can be conducted with a wide variety of protocols and equipment which depend on the quality, characterization, availability and quantity of the nucleic acid present for analysis